Web Components rely on four primary standards:
- Custom Elements: This specification describes the method for enabling the element author to define and use new types of DOM elements in a document.
- HTML Imports: HTML Imports are a way to include and reuse HTML documents in other HTML documents.
- HTML Templates: The template element is used to declare fragments of HTML that can be cloned and inserted in the document by script.
- Shadow DOM: This specification describes a method of combining multiple DOM trees into one hierarchy and how these trees interact with each other within a document, thus enabling better composition of the DOM.
What do we mean by encapsulation?
One of the coolest parts of the W3C draft for Web Components is the specification for Custom Elements, which describes how we can define new types of DOM elements and use them in our web sites. This means that we can create our own HTML tags!
Without Web Components, if you wanted to embed a Google Map onto your website, you’d probably use an iframe:
<iframe src="https://www.google.com/maps/embed?pb=..." width="600" height="450"> </iframe>
That’s pretty ugly. While this code makes sense to a web developer, the relationship between the syntax and the semantics is unclear. Locally, the iframe creates a virtual window that is 600 pixels wide and 450 pixels high and fills it with content provided by the URL. However, using the google-map Custom Element, we can define the google-map tag as an HTML element that represents a Google Map:
<google-map latitude="37.779" longitude="-122.3892"></google-map>
This code is much more readable. The google-map element encapsulates a Google Map as part of the DOM with attributes such as latitude and longitude. It also encapsulates the formatting (style) and the interaction with the Google Maps API, allowing designers and developers to create content faster.
How do we use a Custom Element?
Obviously, you can’t simply use the google-map tag without first defining it as a Custom Element. The Web Components specifications are still in draft status, therefore not all browsers natively support them. If your web browser does not support Web Components, then Custom Elements won’t render, but the webcomponents.js library provides polyfills for these web browsers to encourage adoption of these specifications. Additionally, there are libraries, such as Google’s Polymer, that extend these polyfills. Polymer provides a thin API on top of web components, which makes it really easy to create your own web components. You’ll inevitably hear this magic referred to as syntactic sugar.
Once you have a web browser that supports Web Components (or have the webcomponents.js polyfills loaded), you can import an existing Custom Element and begin using it. There are already websites like CustomElements.io that provide access to a growing collection of existing web components that you can import and begin using.
In the following code sample, we import the google-map Custom Element definition from google-map.html and can begin using the newly defined element. This snippet assumes that the google-map.html exists as a web component in the same directory as the current page of your web application.
<!-- Load Polyfill Web Components support for older browsers --> <script src="components/webcomponentsjs/webcomponents.js"></script> <!-- Import element --> <link rel="import" href="google-map.html"> <!-- Use element --> <google-map lat="37.790" long="-122.390"></google-map>
That’s it! In the next section, we’ll dive deeper into the internals of Web Components.
How do I make my own Custom Elements?
The template element is part of the WHATWG HTML living standard and describes a method to “declare fragments of HTML that can be cloned and inserted in the document by script”. Custom Elements use the template element to define the inert document fragment that will be cloned into the DOM each time it is instantiated. This brings up an interesting point regarding the semantic meaning of the template fragment. By itself, the template element doesn’t actually represent anything. Take the following snippet:
<template> <div> Hello </div> </template>
This template element contains a DocumentFragment consisting of a single div wrapped around the text “Hello”, but this doesn’t actually represent anything… yet. Once the template is cloned, the templated HTML fragment is copied underneath the newly instantiated node et voila! Custom Elements rely on templates to clone and instantiate new DOM elements with HTML fragments, but they are more powerful because they are HTML elements and therefore, they have attributes and can be treated like any other element in the DOM. Take that, iframe content!
The other specification that enables us to create Custom Elements is the Shadow DOM. If you’re not standing in an empty auditorium or over a large chasm, now is the time to find one so that you can bellow “SHADOW DOM!” using your most ominous cackle. The Shadow DOM sounds cool because it is really cool. It describes how multiple DOM trees can be combined into one hierarchy and how these trees interact with each other. What this allows us to do is conceptually maintain a functional boundary between the DOM in your web application and the DOM in your web component. This is important because DOM selectors or CSS styles could otherwise interfere with each other and cause interesting side effects in the Web Components used by your application. The Shadow DOM is a critical specification that enables Web Components to be fully encapsulated. Web Components could not exist without the Shadow DOM.
If you want to start creating your own Web Components, check out WebComponents.org and download one of the polyfill libraries.
Alternatively, you can fork an existing boilerplate project from GitHub: